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View forthcoming articles accepted for publication. Sign up for new issue notifications. Understand the impact of your research We are pleased to announce administrador A Energia e suas Inovacoes artigos new partnership with Altmetric to provide LISTA deeper understanding of how published research is being used, LISTA EXTRA 02.

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To submit an article, or for further information on how to publish in JINST, please therefore visit jinst. Journal of Instrumentation publishes: More details of these important collections are available here. Materials used for the production of protective devices against diagnostic medical X-radiation described in the international standard IEC need to be specified in terms of their lead attenuation equivalent thickness according to the methods described in IEC In May the IEC published the second edition of these standards which contain improved methods for the determination of attenuation ratios and the corresponding lead attenuation equivalent thicknesses of lead-reduced or lead-free materials.

These methods include the measurement of scattered photons behind the protective material which were hitherto neglected but are becoming more important because of the increasing use of lead-reduced or even lead-free materials.

Since the corresponding measurement procedure is new and in some respects more complex than the methods used in the past, it was regarded as being helpful to have a description of how such measurements can reliably be performed.

This technical report describes in detail the attenuation ratio measurements and corresponding procedures for the lead equivalent determinations of sample materials using the method with the inverse broad beam condition as carried out at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB. PTB still offers material testing and certification for the German responsible notified body.

In addition EXTRA the description of the measurements at PTB, LISTA, a short technical guide EXTRA provided for testing which intend to establish this kind of protective material certification.

The guide includes technical recommendations for the testing equipment like X-ray facilities, reference lead sheets and radiation detectors; special procedures for the determination of the lead attenuation equivalent thickness; their uncertainties and the necessary contents of the test certificate. Convolutional neural networks LISTA have been widely EXTRA in the computer vision community to solve complex problems in image recognition and analysis.

We describe an application of the CNN technology to the problem of identifying particle interactions in sampling calorimeters used commonly in high energy physics and high energy neutrino physics in particular. Following a discussion of the core concepts of CNNs and recent innovations in CNN architectures related to the field of deep learning, we outline a specific application to the NOvA neutrino detector.

This algorithm, CVN Convolutional Visual Network identifies neutrino interactions based on their topology without the need for detailed reconstruction and outperforms algorithms currently in use by the NOvA collaboration. Several algorithms to identify jets containing b hadrons are described, ranging from those based on the reconstruction of an inclusive secondary vertex or the presence of tracks with large impact parameters to combined tagging algorithms making use of multi-variate discriminants.

An independent b -tagging algorithm based on the reconstruction of muons inside jets as well as the b -tagging algorithm used in the online trigger are also presented. The b -jet tagging efficiency, the c -jet tagging efficiency and the mistag rate for light flavour jets in data have been measured with a number of complementary methods. The calibration results are presented as scale factors defined as the ratio of the efficiency or mistag rate in data to that in simulation.

In the case of b jets, where more than one calibration method exists, the results from the various analyses have been combined taking into account the statistical correlation as well as the correlation of the sources of systematic uncertainty.

Time of flight TOF in positron emission tomography PET has experienced a revival of interest after its first introduction in the eighties. This is due to a significant progress in solid state photodetectors SiPMs and newly developed scintillators LSO and its derivatives. Special attention is given to SiPM parameters, e.

SPTR and optical crosstalk, and their measured dependency on the crystal LISTA. Ce samples are presented and the results are interpreted in terms of their scintillation properties, e. We report on the results of the engineering run with an active mass of 4 g of LISTA. The CCD array is described, and the performance observed during the EXTRA year EXTRA discussed.

A compact passive shield was deployed around the detector, producing an order of magnitude LISTA in the background rate. The remaining background EXTRA during the run was stable, and dominated by internal click here in the detector packaging materials.

The in-situ calibration of the detector using X-ray lines from fluorescence demonstrates good stability of the readout system. The event rates with the reactor ON and OFF are compared, and no excess is observed coming from nuclear fission at the power plant.

The upper limit for the neutrino event rate is set two orders of magnitude above the expectations for the standard model. The success of the engineering test provides a clear path for the upgraded g detector to be deployed during The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz MHz interaction rate of proton-proton heavy ion collisions. A programmable menu of up to object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing.

The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of Hz for offline event storage.

The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described. We summarize the current state of a concept for muon acceleration aimed at a future Neutrino Factory.

The main thrust of these studies was LISTA reduce the overall cost while maintaining performance by exploring the interplay between the complexity of the cooling systems and the acceptance of the accelerator complex.

To ensure adequate survival for the short-lived muons, acceleration must occur at high average gradient. The need for large transverse and longitudinal acceptances drives EXTRA design of the acceleration system to an initially low RF frequency, e. High-gradient normal LISTA RF cavities EXTRA these frequencies require extremely high peak-power RF sources. We consider two effective schemes for accelerating muon beams for a stageable Neutrino Factory: The algorithm is based on a statistical test that makes use of an iterative method to recover the photomultiplier tube PMT light response directly from the calibration data.

The light response functions LISTA use of a two dimensional functional form EXTRA account for the photons reflected on the inner walls of the detector. To increase the resolution for small pulses, a photon counting technique was employed to describe the response of the PMTs. The reconstruction was assessed with calibration data including 83m Kr releasing a total energy of The NEW detector is a scale 1: Recent results on the characterization of the NEW detector performance using data from calibration sources are presented.

The word "theranostic" derives from the fusion of two terms: It is a promising research field that aims to develop innovative therapies with high target specificity by exploiting the therapeutic and diagnostic properties, in particular for metal-based nanoparticles NPs developed to erase cancer. Both compounds are good X-ray contrast agents due to their high attenuation coefficient with respect to biological tissues, LISTA EXTRA 02, especially immediately above K-edge energy.

X-ray tomography is a powerful non-invasive technique to image the 3D vasculature network in order to detect abnormalities. Phase contrast methods provide more detailed anatomical information with higher discrimination among soft tissues. We present the images of mice liver and brain injected with gold and gadolinium NPs, respectively.

We discuss different image processing methods used aiming at enhancing the accuracy on localizing nanoparticles. Accurate assessment of bone mineral density BMD is critically important in clinical practice, and conveniently enabled via quantitative computed tomography QCT. For information about the landmarks developed in Opera's Presto rendering engine and related Opera browsers, please see Opera's archived version history. These are pre-release builds. Please use them only on properly backed up computers.

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2 comentarios
  1. Yago:

    Media access Rocker gestures Theme installations via addons. Hit F1 anytime while using Opera to access our online help files, or go here. A brief overview of the expected performance of the detector when the Large Hadron Collider begins operation is also presented.

  2. Luiz Gustavo:

    Improved Stash screenshots Draggable bookmarks Speed Dial entry manual sizing. Materials used for the production of protective devices against diagnostic medical X-radiation described in the international standard IEC need to be specified in terms of their lead attenuation equivalent thickness according to the methods described in IEC